- January 28: The Alabama Legislature began meetings in Tuscaloosa that resulted in the choice of Montgomery as the new state capital.
- Shelby Furnace was blown in.
- Benjamin F. Randall reclaimed the office of Shelby County Sheriff.
- Thomas Rowan purchased the 130-acre farm upon which he later built his home.
- January 7: William Walker Jr, attorney
- April: Y. E. Holloway, physician
- May 27: William Berney, banker
- July 5: Edward Erswell, carpenter and undertaker
- July 15: William Rushton Sr, president of the Birmingham Board of Education
- October 13: Edward M. Tutwiler, developer and co-founder of Leeds
- December 17: Andrew Adger, namesake of Adger
- February 11: John Tyler Morgan to Cornelia Willis of Talladega County.
- August 9: William Browne to Margaret Elizabeth Stevens of Tuscaloosa.
In 1846, Brigham Young began leading a migration of Mormons to the Great Salt Lake. The Mexican–American War began. Adolphe Sax received a patent for the saxophone. The planet Neptune was discovered. Iowa was admitted as a state.
Notable births in 1846 included Kentucky Derby founder M. Lewis Clark, frontiersman "Buffalo Bill" Cody, cowboy Texas Jack Omohundro, doctor & pioneering vegetarian Anna Kingsford, and temperance advocate Carrie Nation. Notable deaths included Emperor Ninko of Japan, mathematician & astronomer Friedrich Bessel, and Pope Gregory XVI.
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