1864

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1864 was 7 years before the founding of the City of Birmingham, 45 years after Alabama became a state, and 3 years after Alabama joined the Confederacy.

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Erskine Ramsay, c. 1928 courtesy BPL Archives

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In 1864, the Civil War continued. Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant commander in chief of all Union armies. The phrase "In God We Trust" was first included on U.S. coins. The Russian Empire committed the Circassian Genocide. Montana was organized as a territory. Arlington National Cemetery was established. The Taiping Rebellion ended with the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. General William Tecumseh Sherman invaded Georgia, completing it with his March to the Sea. Nevada was admitted as a state. Abraham Lincoln was reelected in an overwhelming victory over George B. McClellan.

Books published in 1864 included Notes from Underground by Fyodor Dostoevsky, Uncle Silas by Sheridan Le Fanu, Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne, and Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language (unabridged).

Notable births in 1864 included singer Arthur Collins, railway engineer Casey Jones, sociologist Max Weber, automotive pioneer Ransom E. Olds, composer Richard Strauss, botanist George Washington Carver, Archbishop of Canterbury Cosmo Lang, painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and actor William S. Hart. Notable deaths included composer Stephen Foster, King Maximilian II of Bavaria, composer Giacomo Meyerbeer, Confederate Cavalry General J.E.B. Stuart, author Nathaniel Hawthorne, Chinese rebel Hong Xiuquan, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, and mathematician George Boole.

1860s
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