2020 Coronavirus pandemic
The 2019 Coronavirus pandemic was a worldwide pandemic spread by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), a "novel Coronavirus" that was first reported in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan in China's Hubei Province. It quickly spread across the globe, defying efforts at containment. Individuals infected with the virus develop "COVID-19" (COronaVIrus Disease 2019), an illness which attacks pneumocytes, primarily in the lungs, leading to pneumonia, limiting the ability of the body to absorb and distribute oxygen to its cells. In severe cases the body's immune response can overwhelm the lungs or other organs. Though many cases are relatively mild, COVID-19 can linger and present complications, some capable of causing death, especially in older persons or those with compromised immune or respiratory systems.
As reports of the spread of the epidemic to the United States increased, many households began preparing by stocking up on hand sanitizer, disinfectant wipes, dust masks and toilet paper. First-hand accounts of panic buying and media images of empty shelves prompted additional waves of shoppers to descend on stores at the same time that health experts were recommending "social distancing" and regular hand-washing with regular soap and water as the most effective practices to prevent transmission.
In answer to recommendations from public health agencies to slow the spread of infection by limiting social contacts and postponing large-scale events, many public gatherings were canceled, including worship services. Offices asked workers to telecommute and colleges moved instruction to online services. This "social distancing", accompanied with widespread business closures, employee furloughs and lay-offs, was enforced for months, and led to a backlash of calls to "re-open" the economy even while the numbers of newly-confirmed cases were still increasing. Increasingly it was recommended that individuals wear face coverings in public as a way of limiting the risk of transmission. Reactions to these recommendations and mandates became a political issue in the United States with many prominent voices on the right arguing for more re-opening and suggesting that being asked to wear a mask in public was an attack on personal freedom.
As predicted, the relaxation of social distancing requirements and re-opening of businesses; notably of restaurants, bars and amusement parks; resulted in ever larger numbers of new cases, new hospitalizations, and new deaths being reported. That trend became evident in July as the public began focusing on whether schools would re-open in the fall, and whether football games would be played.
Likely due to a delayed capacity to carry out diagnostic testing, Alabama was one of the last states to report a confirmed case of COVID-19. Although it is likely the virus had begun spreading in the state beforehand, the first confirmed case in Alabama was reported on March 13, 2020, two days after the World Health Organization declared the outbreak to be a worldwide pandemic. Some county coroners later expressed suspicions that the disease had been responsible for an observed uptick in treatment-resistant pneumonia deaths during the winter, but public health experts see no evidence that the virus was being transmitted that early.
By Sunday March 15 the number of confirmed cases statewide reached 22, with 12 of those in Jefferson County. Two weeks later, there were 830 confirmed cases, of which 246 were in Jefferson County. The Alabama Department of Public Health recorded six deaths from COVID-19 by March 30, although other reports suggested the number was slightly higher.
On April 7, with nearly 2,200 cases reported statewide, the rate of infection appeared to be lower than some epidemiological models had predicted, likely due to the fact that county and local social distancing orders had not been factored in. There were also some suggestions that COVID-19 testing may be less effective in the early stages of infection.
The Department of Public Health reported that of those who had been diagnosed with COVID-19, 315 were health care workers and another 51 were residents of long-term care facilities. 272 cases required hospitalization, with 116 of those in intensive care and 75 on mechanical ventilation. In many cases it was not feasible to determine whether deaths apparently related to respiratory failure were actually caused by the Coronavirus, because of a shortage of testing resources and the impracticality of communicating with family members.
By April 16, the Department of Public Health had reported 4,249 COVID-19 cases across the state, of which 629 affected residents of Jefferson County. On May 6 the numbers of statewide cases had grown to 8,581, of which nearly 2,500 no longer showed symptoms. On June 16 the state's cumulative total of confirmed cases stood at 26,524, with 13,508 apparently having recovered. The state passed 80,000 confirmed cases on July 28, with 32,510 recoveries reported, along with at least 1,446 deaths.
By late June, Jefferson County had emerged as a "hot spot" of new cases, only partly because of the much larger number of tests conducted in the county. UAB Hospital exceeded its April peak of 63 COVID-19 inpatients in late June, when 74 patients receiving care. In July the hospital reported more than 100 inpatients.
The Alabama Department of Public Health set a goal of testing 0.8% of each county's population every two weeks, which would represent just over 2,800 tests per day statewide. By July 15, the state had expanded its COVID-19 test processing capacity to slightly more than 10,000 tests per day, but also saw the proportion of tests coming back positive inch higher, to more than 17%. The surge of community transmission through late July resulted in backlogs at the state's test processing laboratory, meaning that many people waited as much as a week before getting their results. A separate testing program for as many as 200,000 students returning to classes at the University of Alabama System in August was administered with a rapid-turnaround test protocol developed in-house at UAB, adding to the state's overall testing capacity. Those antigen tests became more widely available in institutional and clinical environments, but the procedures for reporting them to ADPH were not universally understood. The state recorded most antigen-test positives separately as "probable" cases, but clarified that they should be considered as positive cases.
Alabama exceeded the threshold of 100,000 reported cases on August 12, surpassing the total number of cases reported in Bolivia (population 11.35 million) or Israel (population 8.85 million). Of the 100,801 reported on that day, at least 1,800 had died. The state estimated that 12,000 of the 100,801 required hospitalization at some point, with 1,300 in intensive care and 700 placed on ventilators. Approximately 38,000 were presumed to have recovered.
Official prevention responses
As part of a declaration of statewide emergency on Friday, March 13, Governor Kay Ivey ordered all public K-12 schools closed beginning on Monday March 16. Jefferson County and the City of Birmingham declared emergencies that Monday. Jefferson County Health Officer Mark Wilson imposed countywide rules restricting visitors to nursing homes, barring on-premises service at restaurants and bars, and closing private schools and pre-schools. His order also made it mandatory to obtain a permit to host an event with more than 25 attendees. His order took effect on Tuesday, March 17.
The order to suspend on-premises food and beverage service was expanded to Blount, Shelby, St Clair, Tuscaloosa, and Walker counties by the Alabama Department of Public Health that day. Governor Kay Ivey expanded that order statewide on March 19, including the closure of all beaches. Jefferson County raised the bar by ordering, "all nonessential businesses and services," (primarily places where people would gather for leisure) to close effective 5:00 PM Friday March 20 and to prohibit gatherings of more than 10 people.
The City of Birmingham passed a "Shelter in Place" ordinance on March 24, establishing a city-wide curfew to encourage people to shelter in their homes and not to linger or congregate in public, with exceptions for essential business. The order, originally scheduled to expire on April 3, was extended to April 30. The council extended the order to May 15, but relaxed the curfew hours to remain in effect only from 10:00 PM to 5:00 AM. The evening curfew was lifted on May 15, though the remainder of the order was extended to May 22 and again to May 29. Some public parks were barricaded to aid in enforcement of the curfew.
On March 26 state officials announced that school buildings would remain closed for the remainder of the spring, with distance-learning replacing classroom instruction. Some systems continued to prepare meals for students' families to pick up. On March 27, with more than 500 confirmed cases in the state, Governor Ivey issued an order closing non-essential businesses statewide until April 17, and limiting non-work gatherings to no more than 10 people. President Trump declared Alabama a "major disaster area" on March 30, opening the way for additional forms of emergency relief.
After two weeks of expressing disinterest, Governor Ivey declared a statewide shelter-in-place order on April 3. The order for individuals to remain at home except when carrying out specific essential activities, took effect at 5:00 PM on Saturday April 4 and was set to remain in force through April 30.
The state's stockpiles of medical equipment apparently peaked around 2009, with inadequate funding provided to maintain or replace expired materials. The Alabama Department of Public Health has been able to distribute some notionally-expired personal protective equipment under an "Emergency Use Authorization" from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, but the 80 ventilators stockpiled in 2009 were no longer available for use.
The Alabama State Department of Corrections suspended transfer of inmates from county jails to state prisons on March 20. Prison conditions in the state, already unwholesome, were recognized as particularly unsuited to attempting to contain an epidemic, with inadequate capacity for distancing or protection for inmates or staff. By late July Jefferson County was holding 45 inmates under quarantine and had seen 16 deputies on jail duty test positive.
The Alabama Department of Veterans Affairs worked with the Alabama National Guard to establish a "Task Force 31" to clean and disinfect its veterans' homes. Despite the precaution, testing at the first facility to be treated, the Bill Nichols State Veterans Home in Alexander City, revealed that 64 residents and 23 employees had been infected.
On April 28 the Birmingham City Council approved an ordinance requiring all persons more than 2 years old to use of face coverings when outside a personal residence or vehicle, and during any interaction with a person outside of his or her household, subject to specific exceptions beginning May 1.
Efforts to enforce social distancing and other measures in Tuscaloosa were reportedly undermined by groups of college students who organized "COVID-19 parties" aimed at spreading the disease.
The Alabama Department of Public Health entered July with only 150 "contact tracers," responsible for interviewing every person confirmed to have contracted the disease, attempting to determine how they may have been exposed, and notifying anyone who has come into close contact with them to urge them to isolate and get tested. The state expected to hire about 200 more through an outside vendor, but never came close to the more than 5,000 contact tracers estimated as necessary to perform an adequate job.
On April 21 as pressure from President Trump stirred up a number of small-scale "Re-Open" protests at state capitals, and several Republican governors and legislators began calling for businesses to be re-opened, Governor Ivey held a press conference in which she stated that insufficient testing capacity was available to begin planning to lift social distancing orders, and that the current order would remain in place through the end of the month, with the possibility of an extension if conditions did not allow scaling it back.
A week later, Governor Ivey announced a "Safer at Home" order to take effect on May 1 which loosened restrictions on some businesses and elective medical procedures, and re-opened state beaches, with requirements in place for social distancing and protections. The order strongly recommended face coverings in public, but did not make them mandatory. Birmingham's mask ordinance was extended to May 22 and again to May 29, with additional clarifications and an exception for eating. On May 29 the City Council voted unanimously to extend the mask requirement through June 12, with tweaks to the schedule of fines for noncompliance.
On May 8 Ivey announced a further step toward reopening to take effect on May 11 and expire on May 22, allowing gatherings of more than 10 people, including at churches; and allowing restaurants, bars, fitness centers, barber shops and salons to reopen; with precautions to maintain distancing and sanitation.
On May 21, Ivey further relaxed statewide shutdowns, allowing entertainment and sports venues, and child-care centers to reopen with hygiene and distancing procedures in place. That set of guidelines was extended to July 3, and then again to July 31. The revised order also set a June 1 reopening for educational programs and June 15 as the date on which sports competitions could take place. The following day, Jefferson County's Health Department issued revised guidelines which included keeping entertainment and recreation venues closed through June 6.
The University of Alabama Board of Trustees planned to reopen its college campuses for the fall semester. A portion of CARES Act funding was used to provide COVID-19 testing to all students before they reported for classes, and to implement the GuideSafe program for symptom tracking and contact tracing. University-administered re-entry and sentinel tests, analyzed independently from the ADPH laboratory, were included in statewide data reporting. Despite precautions, both Alabama and Auburn experienced large spikes in new cases after opening their campuses.
The statewide policy for reopening public K-12 schools in August 2020 recommended a "balance" of in-person and distance learning, while acknowledging that if a significant number of students have to be quarantined, that new school shutdowns were likely. Some systems opened with an option for in-person instruction in late August, with other using remote learning, at least for the first nine weeks.
Treatments and research
Because the SARS-CoV-2 was entirely new, no immunity or specific antidotes were available. Because of the ease of transmission, the first priority in hospitals was to seal off wards where COVID-19 could be treated and to establish protocols for the use of protective equipment by healthcare workers, in the context of local, national and global shortages.
One of the drugs used on a trial basis for the treatment of COVID-19 patients was remdesivir, a drug under development at the Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Center under UAB's Richard Whitley. During the 2020 pandemic, UAB Hospital participated in a clinical trials with remdesivir, as well as a separate clinical trial of the use of nitric oxide in ventilators for those whose lung function was severely compromised. Nitric oxide had earlier shown some promise with SARS patients. Cardiologists Pankaj Arora and Vibhu Parcha led that study.
UAB also developed a "COVID-19 Symptom Tracker" which encouraged members of the general public to report any changes in possible symptoms over time, helping the university identify "hot spots" for public health intervention and to conduct research on the early indicators of the disease. Mohanraj Thirumalai led the development of the tool with assistance from citizen-science advocate Sarah Parcak and health informatics specialist Sue Feldman, along with several university departments and research centers.
The UAB School of Medicine's Division of Infectious Diseases opened a COVID Respiratory Clinic in the former Regions Bank branch in the Kirklin Clinic Parking Deck at 539 Richard Arrington Jr Boulevard South. The clinic conducted telephone or video consultations with UAB Health patients who have tested positive but are convalescing at home. In-person appointments could be made when warranted to determine if hospital treatment was required, without burdening emergency room capacity.
On April 24 UAB began administering antibody tests, blood tests which can determine if an individual has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The antibody test can not determine if an infection is active or if the individual is immune to re-infection. The major use of the test was expected to be in identifying candidates who could donate convalescent plasma, and as part of larger-scale epidemiological studies. That clinical study, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and the Mayo Clinic, was led at UAB by Sonya Heath.
In early May the Alabama Department of Public Health broadened the criteria for processing COVID-19 tests in its laboratory to better address the need to test front-line healthcare workers and residents of long-term care facilities, whether or not they have symptoms of illness.
The Hugh Kaul Precision Medicine Institute at UAB contributed to development of trials at VA Medical Centers in West Los Angeles and elsewhere to measure the effectiveness in male patients of the androgen deprivation drug Firmagon (degarelix), which may suppress production of a certain protein in the lungs that COVID-19 utilizes.
Robert Kennedy of UAB's Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Eric Ford of the UAB School of Public Health, and Jennifer Croker of the UAB School of Medicine led a national serological study of blood samples for the National Institutes of Health to help shed light on the percentage of Americans who may have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 without knowing it.
Research teams headed by Troy Randall of the UAB Division of Clinical Immunology and Kevin Harrod of the UAB Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine joined with several researchers from the UAB Department of Microbiology in performing certain preclinical studies of an "AdCOVID" trial vaccine developed by Altimmune of Gaithersburg, Maryland. The potential vaccine, which would be administered by nasal injection, showed promising therapeutic results and advanced to Phase 1 safety trials in late 2020.
Southern Research carried out pre-clinical studies of another vaccine candidate, TNX-1800, in a partnership with Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. Raj Kalkeri of Southern Research’s Infectious Disease Research Group led the research, which also studied the immune responses of individuals who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and no longer showed symptoms.
Beginning in late July, UAB began enrolling volunteers for a portion of a larger human trial study of a vaccine candidate developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca. The research was led locally by Paul Goepfert. In September UAB began a clinical study of the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) in suppressing the virus' infectivity in patients with elevated levels of the extracellular protease plasmin due to comordities. Sadis Matalon and Timothy Ness were involved in developing the study.
Though far from universally adopted, warnings to maintain social distance and self-isolate to slow the rate of infection, soon reinforced by state authority, caused a sudden and drastic decline in revenues for small businesses, non-profit programs, event venues, visitor attractions and transportation services. Low-paid service workers began experiencing job losses almost immediately. Birmingham Mayor Randall Woodfin announced the establishment of a "Birmingham Strong Fund" managed by the Community Foundation of Greater Birmingham to help mitigate the economic damage to small businesses.
On March 17 the Birmingham City Council approved Mayor Randall Woodfin's proposal to apply $15,165,333 from the city's general fund and investments toward protective equipment, supplies and overtime for first responders and city workers, and to plug expected shortfalls in tax collections. The Riverchase Galleria closed its interior public areas on March 23. On March 27 President Trump signed the "CARES Act", approving more than $2.2 trillion in federal stimulus to aid disease-fighting efforts and provide bailouts for businesses and individuals affected by the mass shutdown of economic activities. $1.9 billion in funds from that bill came to Alabama, of which $250 million was earmarked for health care delivery and related services. $115 million was allotted directly to Jefferson County. Another $300 million was used to replenish the state's unemployment insurance trust fund, which had dwindled from $750 million to under $100 million between March and September. $10 million went to the Alabama Department of Tourism to promote travel to the state.
Some manufacturers and individual craftspeople across the state began collaborating with healthcare officials to shift production to fill unmet demand for personal protective equipment such as face shields and fabric masks. One group put together a Birmingham Face Masks website and distributed more than 63,000 hand-made fabric masks through Christian Family Services. Red Mountain Makers and others used 3-D printers to manufacture face shields. Cullman textile manufacturer HomTex invested $5 million in shifting production to pleated surgical masks.
Emergency room doctor Brandon White organized a program for local restaurateurs to supply hospital staff with meals funded by donors. Several nonprofits, including Meals on Wheels, Greater Birmingham Ministries, and Neighbors for Nutrition, distributed donated meals to people in need. Be A Blessing Birmingham obtained eight temporary handwashing stations from the Atlanta-based nonprofit Love Beyond Walls to place at downtown parks for use by the public, including homeless individuals. Mujtaba and Alinah Syed launched Birmingham Service Industry United to prepare and deliver meals to unemployed service workers. On May 18 a large-scale produce giveaway at Cathedral of the Cross distributed 44,000 pounds of food to more than 2,000 households. The event was made possible through the U.S. Department of Agriculture's "Farmers to Families" program and coordination efforts by Forestwood Farm LaShunda Scales. Additional distribution events were scheduled that week at Guiding Light Church, Crumly Chapel United Methodist Church, and Living Stones Temple. The Birmingham Police Department's Community Outreach and Public Education Division also conducted two food giveaways at Birmingham Police Headquarters in May.
On May 5 a KC-135R Stratotanker from the 117th Air Refueling Wing performed a fly-over of area medical centers as part of "Operation American Resolve", a national campaign to "show appreciation" to front-line healthcare workers and to "lift morale" during the public health and economic crisis. A pair of C-130 "Hercules" transports from the 908th Airlift Wing at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery performed a similar flyover on May 12. In August digital media company Diversified produced a 67-foot projection on the UAB Quarterback Club Tower lauding healthcare professionals with the message that "Heroes Work Here".
Alabama also distributed $100 million in business relief through a "Revive Alabama" grant program, awarding $15,000 to small businesses on a first come-first serve basis.
Casualties and other implications
The Jefferson County Sheriff's Office reported an increase in domestic violence calls from 111 in March 2019 to 141 in March 2020, coinciding with the first school closings, self-quarantines and stay-at-home orders. Delta Airlines used space at Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport to temporarily house about 100 commercial airliners.
The pandemic resulted in the postponement of the 2021 World Games, as well as cancellation of the 2020 Birmingham Barons season, the 2020 Regions Tradition, and the 2020 Magic City Classic. The Southeastern Conference proceeded to play a limited schedule of football games in the fall.
The city's revenues from taxes and license fees dropped significantly due to shutdowns, while expenses for equipment and overtime increased. Mayor Randall Woodfin attempted to make up a large part of the deficit with cuts to personnel and city funding to outside agencies in the 2021 Birmingham budget.
Moody's Analytics predicted on April 4 that Alabama's would be among the least-affected economies in the United States, based mostly on the proportion of tourism revenues, with the expectation that manufacturing and exports would resume pace overall by the end of the year.
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