- March 3: Samuel B. Moore succeeded Gabriel Moore as Governor at Moore's election to the U. S. Senate.
- April 18: The University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa opened to students with Alva Woods as its first president.
- November 26: John Gayle succeeded Samuel B. Moore as Governor.
- Farmer Samuel Fields was granted an 80-acre tract around present-day Brookside.
- January 30: Furnace master Moses Stroup married Permelia Richards.
- Merchant Campbell Wallace married Susan Lyon.
In 1831, abolitionist newspaper The Liberator began publication. The Hunchback of Notre Dame was first published by Victor Hugo. Pope Gregory XVI succeeded Pope Pius VIII, who had died the previous year. The French Foreign Legion was founded. The Sydney Morning Herald newspaper began publication. Nat Turner's slave rebellion took place in Virginia. Charles Darwin embarked on his historic journey aboard the HMS Beagle.
Notable births included Coca-Cola inventor John Pemberton, inventor and industrialist George Pullman, wagon and carriage manufacturer Clement Studebaker, Confederate general John Bell Hood, physicist James Clerk Maxwell, mathematician Richard Dedekind, paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh, President James A. Garfield, and educator Anna Leonowens. Notable deaths included Mexican independence hero Vicente Guerrero, mathematician Sophie Germain, former president James Monroe, and slave rebel Nat Turner.
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