In 1823, the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome was almost completely destroyed by fire. James Monroe first introduced the Monroe Doctrine in the State of the Union Address.
Notable births in 1823 included biologist Alfred Russel Wallace, writer Ned Buntline, political boss William M. Tweed, aviation pioneer Félix du Temple de la Croix, and Orientalist Max Müller. Notable deaths included physician Edward Jenner, writer Ann Radcliffe, Pope Pius VII, and economist David Ricardo.
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