Difference between revisions of "1931"

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[[Image:Palm Leaf Hotel.jpg|right|thumb|480px|The [[Palm Leaf Hotel]] and [[Brock's Drug Company]] in [[1931]].]]
 
'''1931''' was the 60th year after the founding of the City of [[Birmingham]].
 
'''1931''' was the 60th year after the founding of the City of [[Birmingham]].
  
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* March: [[Homewood]] bought 16 acres of land along [[Shades Creek]] for a future [[Shades Creek Park (public park)|public park]].
 
* March: [[Homewood]] bought 16 acres of land along [[Shades Creek]] for a future [[Shades Creek Park (public park)|public park]].
 
* Spring: [[Miss Fancy]], the elephant at [[Avondale Park]] [[Birmingham Zoo|Zoo]], broke her chains and barreled through trees up [[Red Mountain]] until she was caught on [[Overlook Road]].
 
* Spring: [[Miss Fancy]], the elephant at [[Avondale Park]] [[Birmingham Zoo|Zoo]], broke her chains and barreled through trees up [[Red Mountain]] until she was caught on [[Overlook Road]].
* [[May 31]]: The $1 million [[Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport|Birmingham Airport]] opened with day-long ceremonies and an air show.
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* [[April 29]]:  [[Jefferson County Sheriff's Office|Jefferson County]] prison guard [[William Lee Taylor]] was ambushed and [[List of homicides in 1931|murdered]] on [[Narrows Road]] between [[Pinson]] and [[Morris]].
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* [[May 31]]: The $1 million [[Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport|Birmingham Airport]] opened with day-long ceremonies and [[Steadham Acker]]'s [[Birmingham National Air Carnival]].
 +
* A replica bronze statue of the "[[Capitoline Wolf]]" was presented to the city by Benito Mussolini's Envoy to the United States.
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* [[December 29]]: The [[1931 Overton No. 1 Mine explosion]] resulted in five deaths.
 +
* [[Donald Beatty]] led a J. P. Morgan-financed scientific expedition into the interior of the Amazon.
 
* The [[Homewood City Council]] established racial zoning in [[Rosedale]].
 
* The [[Homewood City Council]] established racial zoning in [[Rosedale]].
* [[Robert Jemison, Jr]] donated a pair of swans to [[Avondale Park]].
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* [[Robert Jemison Jr]] donated a pair of swans to [[Avondale Park]].
 
* The [[Southern Club]] closed.
 
* The [[Southern Club]] closed.
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* Thirty-six paintings by Birmingham artist [[Carrie Hill]] were exhibited at the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts.
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* Harry M. and Nettie Buten of Merion, Pennsylvania began [[Buten collection|collecting Wedgwood]].
 +
* [[Robert Van de Graaff]] demonstrated his high-voltage generator for the American Institute of Physics in Schenectady, New York.
  
 
===Business===
 
===Business===
* [[Houston Brice, Sr]] founded the [[Brice Building Company]].
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* During the summer, several downtown theaters closed, including the [[Empire Theatre|Empire]], [[Galax Theatre|Galax]], and [[Lyric Theatre|Lyric]], unable to reach an agreement with the Motion Picture Operators Union. When many of them reopened with non-union projectionists in the fall, they were targeted in a "terror campaign" involving stink bombs, tear gas and large snakes.
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* [[Houston Brice Sr]] founded the [[Brice Building Company]].
 
* [[Torme's Associated Foods]] opened.
 
* [[Torme's Associated Foods]] opened.
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* The [[Liberty National Life Insurance Company]] purchased the [[Liberty National Building]].
 
* [[WAPI-AM]] applied to the FRC for permission to boost its transmission to 50 Kilowatts.
 
* [[WAPI-AM]] applied to the FRC for permission to boost its transmission to 50 Kilowatts.
 
* [[WBRC-AM]] increased its power to 5 kilowatts and moved to a "Crystal Studio" on the mezzanine of the [[Temple Theater]].  
 
* [[WBRC-AM]] increased its power to 5 kilowatts and moved to a "Crystal Studio" on the mezzanine of the [[Temple Theater]].  
 
* [[Joe Giattina]] and his [[Bama Cardinals]] ended a six-year run on Sunday afternoons on [[WBRC-AM]].
 
* [[Joe Giattina]] and his [[Bama Cardinals]] ended a six-year run on Sunday afternoons on [[WBRC-AM]].
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* The [[Birmingham, Selma & Mobile Railroad]] shut down.
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* [[George Brownell Jr]] became president of [[Brownell Travel]].
 +
* The [[Birmingham Vending Company]] was incorporated.
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* [[Douglas McConnell]] and [[Leslie F. McConnell]] founded the [[McConnell Sales and Engineering Corporation]].
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* The [[Sunnyland Refining Company]] began producing oleomargarine.
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* [[East Lake Cemetery]] was sold.
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* [[Tallulah Bankhead]] signed with Paramount Pictures.
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* [[Julian Aland]] opened the [[Emily Shop]] at [[Five Points South]].
 +
* Architect [[Jack B. Smith]] closed the "Birmingham Branch Office" of Holabird & Root and opened his own firm.
  
 
===Government===
 
===Government===
 
* [[January 19]]: [[Benjamin M. Miller]] succeeded [[Bibb Graves]] as [[Governor of Alabama]].
 
* [[January 19]]: [[Benjamin M. Miller]] succeeded [[Bibb Graves]] as [[Governor of Alabama]].
 +
* January 19: [[Hugh Merrill]] succeeded [[William C. Davis]] as [[Lieutenant Governor of Alabama]].
 
* January 19: [[James Hawkins]] succeeded [[W. O. Downs]] as [[Jefferson County Sheriff]].
 
* January 19: [[James Hawkins]] succeeded [[W. O. Downs]] as [[Jefferson County Sheriff]].
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* [[March 4]]: [[John H. Bankhead II]] began serving in the U.S. Senate.
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* [[March 5]]: [[Samuel Peck]] was made the first official Poet Laureate of Alabama.
 
* [[Cooper Green]] was elected to the [[Alabama State House of Representatives]].
 
* [[Cooper Green]] was elected to the [[Alabama State House of Representatives]].
 +
* [[Charles Kennamer]] was appointed to the [[United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama]].
  
 
===Religion===
 
===Religion===
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* A group of members left [[First Presbyterian Church]] and founded the [[Congregational Community Church]].
 +
* [[May 29]]: A group of members left [[Jackson Street Baptist Church]] and founded [[First Baptist Church of Woodlawn]].
 
* [[Louis Pizitz]] succeeded [[Harry Berlin]] as president of [[Temple Beth-El]].
 
* [[Louis Pizitz]] succeeded [[Harry Berlin]] as president of [[Temple Beth-El]].
 
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* [[John C. Fletcher]] became pastor of [[St John's Episcopal Church for the Deaf]].
 +
* [[Milton Grafman]] was ordained as a rabbi.
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* [[William Lantrip]] succeeded [[L. F. Stansel]] as pastor of [[Avondale United Methodist Church|Avondale Methodist Church]].
 +
* [[Paul Hardin]] was ordained an Elder in the Methodist Church.
  
 
===Education===
 
===Education===
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===Sports===
 
===Sports===
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* [[January 1]]: Coach [[Wallace Wade]]'s [[1930 Alabama Crimson Tide football team]] defeated the Washington State Cougars 24-0 in the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, finishing the year with a 10-0 record and claiming a [[List of Alabama Crimson Tide football national championships|national championship]].
 
* [[May 10]]: [[Art Weist]] hit a [[Birmingham Barons records|Birmingham Barons record]] three home runs in a game against Nashville. He also set records for consecutive home runs (3) and home runs in an inning (2).
 
* [[May 10]]: [[Art Weist]] hit a [[Birmingham Barons records|Birmingham Barons record]] three home runs in a game against Nashville. He also set records for consecutive home runs (3) and home runs in an inning (2).
* [[John Cortazzo]] set a [[Birmingham Barons records|Birmingham Barons record]] for being hit by pitches 15 times during the [[1931 Birmingham Barons|1931 season]]  
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* [[John Cortazzo]] set a [[Birmingham Barons records|Birmingham Barons record]] for being hit by pitches 15 times during the [[1931 Birmingham Barons|1931 season]].
 +
* [[Wallace Wade]] left Alabama to become head coach of the Duke Blue Devils. [[Frank W. Thomas]] succeeded him as head coach of the [[Alabama Crimson Tide football team]].
 
* [[August 6]]: Pitcher [[Satchel Paige]] made his debut with the Crawford Colored Giants.
 
* [[August 6]]: Pitcher [[Satchel Paige]] made his debut with the Crawford Colored Giants.
 
* [[August 15]]: Pitcher [[Ivy Andrews]] made his debut with the New York Yankees.
 
* [[August 15]]: Pitcher [[Ivy Andrews]] made his debut with the New York Yankees.
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* [[September 25]]: The [[1931 Birmingham Barons]] beat Texas League champion Houston Buffaloes in the "Dixie Series" 4 games to 3.
 
* [[September 25]]: The [[1931 Birmingham Barons]] beat Texas League champion Houston Buffaloes in the "Dixie Series" 4 games to 3.
 
* The [[Dunbar High School]] Blue Devils began their football program under coach [[Mule Knox]].
 
* The [[Dunbar High School]] Blue Devils began their football program under coach [[Mule Knox]].
 +
* The Seattle Indians traded infielder [[Stuffy Stewart]] to the Knoxville Smokies.
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* Langston University joined the [[Southwestern Athletic Conference]].
 +
* Pitcher [[Bob Adams (pitcher)|Bob Adams]] was signed by the Philadelphia Phillies as an amateur free agent.
  
 
==Individuals==
 
==Individuals==
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* [[Douglas Arant]] began serving on the [[Alabama State Bar]]'s Board of Commissioners.
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* [[A. N. Barrentine]] succeeded [[S. D. Kilgore]] as [[Walker County Sheriff]]
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* [[Hugo Black|Hugo]] and [[Josephine Black]] moved in with her parents in the [[Sterling Foster residence]].
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* Scholar [[Harvie Branscomb]] began a two-year Guggenheim Fellowship.
 
* [[Bear Bryant]] accepted a scholarship offer from [[Alabama Crimson Tide football]] assistant coach [[Hank Crisp]].
 
* [[Bear Bryant]] accepted a scholarship offer from [[Alabama Crimson Tide football]] assistant coach [[Hank Crisp]].
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* [[Alice Chalifoux]] became principal harpist with the Cleveland, Ohio Orchestra.
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* [[E. T. Leech]] became editor of ''The Pittsburgh Post''
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* [[Joseph Loveman]] briefly retired from [[Loveman's|Loveman, Joseph & Loeb]].
 +
* [[Sidney van Sheck]] took a job at [[Bechtel-McCone]].
 +
* [[Helen Walpole]] debuted on Broadway.
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===Births===
 
===Births===
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* [[January 6]]: [[Don Morrison]], architect
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* [[February 21]]: [[James Walker]], artist and historian
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* [[March 7]]: [[Sonny Penhale]], [[Mayor of Helena]].
 +
* [[March 20]]: [[Henry Aizenman]], Holocaust survivor
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* [[March 27]]: [[Ken Forbes Jr]], Presbyterian minister and head shop owner
 
* [[April 4]]: [[John Porter]], pastor of [[6th Avenue Baptist Church]]
 
* [[April 4]]: [[John Porter]], pastor of [[6th Avenue Baptist Church]]
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* [[April 21]]: [[Martha Wilson]], civic and business leader in [[Gardendale]]
 
* [[May 6]]: [[Willie Mays]], Hall of Fame outfielder
 
* [[May 6]]: [[Willie Mays]], Hall of Fame outfielder
 
* [[May 10]]: [[Robert Vance]], federal judge
 
* [[May 10]]: [[Robert Vance]], federal judge
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* [[May 24]]: [[Leon Edwards]], auto dealer
 
* [[May 25]]: [[Bill Holdefer]], surgeon
 
* [[May 25]]: [[Bill Holdefer]], surgeon
 
* [[May 29]]: [[John Baumgartner]], baseball player
 
* [[May 29]]: [[John Baumgartner]], baseball player
 +
* [[August 18]]: [[John Woods]], [[AmSouth Bank]] CEO
 +
* [[September 8]]: [[Cecil Coghlan]], cardiologist
 +
* [[November 6]]: [[Gil Hill]], actor and Detroit City Council president
 +
* [[November 15]]: [[Sonny Smith]], [[Auburn Tigers basketball]] coach
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* November 15: [[Frank Bromberg Jr]], president and chairman of [[Bromberg's]]
 +
* [[November 21]]: [[Clyde Foster]], NASA mathematician and official
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* [[December 1]]: [[John Schnorrenberg]], chair of [[UAB Department of Art & Art History]]
 +
* [[December 13]]: [[Arthur Deutsch]], former [[Birmingham Police Department|Birmingham police]] chief
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* [[Bobby Allgood]]
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* [[Joel Bearden]], dairy farmer and [[Shelby County Commission]]er
 +
* [[Ira De Ment]], District Court judge
 +
* [[Camille Desmarais]], Episcopal priest
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* [[Gage Bush Englund]], ballerina and civic leader
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* [[Erskine Faush]], AME Zion pastor, radio host, executive and gospel singer
 +
* [[Glenn House]], artist and papermaker
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* [[Sis Levin]], peace activist and author
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* [[Bob Moody]], interior designer and artist
 +
* [[Homer Smith]], [[Alabama Crimson Tide football]] coach
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* [[Richard Vigneulle]], banker and pastor
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* [[Jim Wall]], president of [[O'Neal Steel]]
  
 
===Marriages===
 
===Marriages===
 
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* [[Anne Woodward]] to [[James Burt Jr]].
 
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* [[Martha Hoole|Martha Anne Sanders]] to [[William Hoole]]
===Awards===
+
*  
+
  
 
===Graduations===
 
===Graduations===
*
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* Educator [[Mildred Brown]] graduated from [[Miles College|Miles Memorial Teachers College]] at age 16.
 +
* Educator [[Delos Culp]] graduated as valedictorian of [[Isabella High School]] in [[Maplesville]].
 +
* Pathologist [[Joseph Cunningham]] completed a bachelor of arts at the Catholic University of America.
 +
* Restaurateur [[John Holcomb Jr]] graduated from [[Phillips High School]].
 +
* Librarian [[William Hoole]] completed his master's in English at Wofford College.
 +
* Sporting goods dealer [[Fred Sington]] completed his bachelor's degree at the [[University of Alabama]].
  
 
===Deaths===
 
===Deaths===
 +
* [[February 11]]: [[William Weir]], former [[Birmingham Police Department|Birmingham Chief of Police]]
 
* [[May 23]]: [[W. W. Rose]], architect and former mayor of Kansas City, Kansas
 
* [[May 23]]: [[W. W. Rose]], architect and former mayor of Kansas City, Kansas
* [[August 4]]: [[Jennie Wood]] and [[Augusta Williams]] died after being shot during an outing on [[Leeds Highway]].
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* [[July 29]]: [[William Graves]], attorney and real estate developer
 +
* [[August 4]]: [[Jennie Wood]] and [[Augusta Williams]] [[Wood/Williams murders|died after being shot during an outing]] on [[Leeds Highway]].
 +
* [[September 10]]: [[George Macon]], former [[Howard College]] professor
 +
* [[October 14]]: [[Thomas Molton]], real estate developer
 +
* [[November 27]]: [[Sumter Bethea]], real estate broker
 +
* [[December 14]]: [[William Jelks]], former [[Governor of Alabama]]
 
* [[December 29]]: [[George Bodeker]], former [[Birmingham Police Department|Birmingham Police]] and founder of [[Bodeker's National Detective Agency]].
 
* [[December 29]]: [[George Bodeker]], former [[Birmingham Police Department|Birmingham Police]] and founder of [[Bodeker's National Detective Agency]].
 +
* December 29: 5 miners were killed in the [[1931 Overton No. 1 Mine explosion]].
 +
* [[Thomas Walter III]], architect
 +
* There were 148 homicides reported in the city during the year. See [[List of Birmingham homicides in 1931]].
  
 
==Works==
 
==Works==
 
+
* [[Roderick MacKenzie]] completed the fresco murals in the rotunda of the Alabama State Capitol.
 
+
===Books===
+
 
+
  
 
===Buildings===
 
===Buildings===
 +
* [[Avondale United Methodist Church]], new sanctuary
 +
* [[Avondale Villa]] at [[Avondale Park]]
 +
* [[Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport|Birmingham Municipal Airport]]
 +
* [[Dr Pepper Syrup Plant]]
 +
* [[Hill Elementary School]], two-room annex
 +
* [[Jefferson County Courthouse]] at [[Linn Park|Woodrow Wilson Park]]
 +
* [[Jefferson County Home]]
 +
* [[McAdory High School]] additions
 +
* [[Medical Arts Building]] at [[Five Points South]], developed by the [[Kamram Grotto]]
 +
* [[Pickwick Club]] at [[Five Points South]], developed by the [[Kamram Grotto]]
 
* [[Railroad Reservation]] grade separation
 
* [[Railroad Reservation]] grade separation
 
** [[14th Street underpass]]
 
** [[14th Street underpass]]
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** [[19th Street underpass]]
 
** [[19th Street underpass]]
 
** [[20th Street underpass]]
 
** [[20th Street underpass]]
* [[Avondale Villa]] at [[Avondale Park]]
+
* [[Stockham Woman's Building]] at [[Birmingham-Southern College]]
* [[Jefferson County Courthouse]] at [[Linn Park|Woodrow Wilson Park]]
+
* [[Willis Rushton residence]]
* [[Jefferson County Home]]
+
 
+
  
 
===Music===
 
===Music===
 
+
* Gene Autry recorded "[[Birmingham Daddy]]"
  
 
==Context==
 
==Context==
1931 was
+
The year 1931 saw ''The Star-Spangled Banner'' adopted as the United States National anthem.  Nevada legalized gambling.  The Scottsboro Boys were arrested for rape, tried, and initially sentenced to death.  The Empire State Building in New York City was completed.  The Geneva Convention rules regarding treatment of prisoners went into effect.  Comic strip detective Dick Tracy debuted.  Al Capone was sentenced for tax evasion.  The George Washington Bridge in New York City opened.  The Chinese Soviet Republic was proclaimed by Mao Zedong.
  
1931 saw the births of  
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<!-- 1931 saw the births of  
  
 
Literature of 1931
 
Literature of 1931
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 +
Films included ''City Lights'' starring Charlie Chaplin, ''Dracula'' starring Bela Lugosi
 +
-->
  
 
{{Decade box|193|192|194}}
 
{{Decade box|193|192|194}}
 
[[Category:1931|*]]
 
[[Category:1931|*]]

Latest revision as of 13:21, 6 December 2021

1931 was the 60th year after the founding of the City of Birmingham.

Events

Business

Government

Religion

Education

Sports

Individuals

Births

Marriages

Graduations

Deaths

Works

  • Roderick MacKenzie completed the fresco murals in the rotunda of the Alabama State Capitol.

Buildings

Music

Context

The year 1931 saw The Star-Spangled Banner adopted as the United States National anthem. Nevada legalized gambling. The Scottsboro Boys were arrested for rape, tried, and initially sentenced to death. The Empire State Building in New York City was completed. The Geneva Convention rules regarding treatment of prisoners went into effect. Comic strip detective Dick Tracy debuted. Al Capone was sentenced for tax evasion. The George Washington Bridge in New York City opened. The Chinese Soviet Republic was proclaimed by Mao Zedong.


1930s
<< 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 >>
Births - Deaths - Establishments - Events - Works