Dozier was the oldest of four children born to Orion and Elizabeth Dozier. He moved with his family to Birmingham in 1890. He joined his father's practice in 1897, but left to serve as a lieutenant in the Fifth Regiment, U.S. Volunteers during the Spanish-American War.
In 1899 Dozier & Dozier had resumed their joint practice, and were the first physicians in the South to use an X-ray machine. They also made use of other electrical appliances in the treatment of nervous disorders.
Byron was active in the Camp Henry D. Clayton No. 432 of the United Sons of Confederate Veterans. He was appointed "surgeon general" of the national organization in 1907 and earned an annual commission of $1. Dozier served on a committee that adapted certain practices of fraternal organizations, such as a ritual initiation ceremony, to the SCV. He also chaired a committee on horses and carriages for the 1908 Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans held in Birmingham.
Dozier married the former Willie Idumea Doyle on April 27, 1904. The couple had one son, Orion, and two daughters, Francis and Elizabeth. They resided at 2107 8th Court South. Willie died in 1952 after a long illness.
Byron's son and daughter-in-law, Lucille, died in a plane crash while flying from New York to his bedside in Dallas, Texas in the spring of 1959. Dozier died a few months later and is buried at Elmwood Cemetery.
- Byron Dozier at findagrave.com