Richard Arrington, Jr (born October 1934, Livingston, Alabama) was the first African-American Mayor of Birmingham, serving 20 years, from 1979 to 1999. He replaced David Vann and, upon retiring after five terms in office, installed then-City Council president William Bell as interim mayor. After a short term, Bell went on to lose the next election to Bernard Kincaid.
Arrington's father moved his family to the steel-town of Fairfield from rural Sumter County when Richard, Jr. was five years old, to take a job with U.S. Steel. The steady work was an improvement over sharecropping, but Richard, Sr. still had to supplement the http://satyaedu.org/levitra-online-canada family income by working off-hours as a brick mason.
Arrington's parents emphasized self-reliance, choosing to rent a home rather than stay in workers' housing and http://www.mynextstyle.com/purchase-cialis-soft-tabs shopping at a black-owned cooperative store rather than accept credit at the company commissary. Richard's mother, Ernestine, kept the table filled with home-grown vegetables and made sure that her children made use of the opportunities given them through church and school.
Arrington, while still a teenager, served as secretary of www.hustonpatterson.com the Sunday School at Crumbey Bethel Primitive Baptist Church. Soon he was Sunday School superintendent, a member of the choir, and eventually elected to the Board of Deacons. He was also a standout student at Fairfield Industrial High School, where he had first decided to http://marketmentor.org/cialis-generic study tailoring. With those classes full, he instead learned dry cleaning, graduating in 1951 at the age of 16. Afterwards, he took a job at a cleaner and applied to Fairfield's Miles College.
 Academic career
Arrington majored in biology at Miles and excelled in the classroom and as a leader, rising to the presidency of his chapter of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. He was also an officer in the Honor Society and the Thespian Club. In his third year of college, while still living at home, he married Barbara Jean Watts. He graduated cum laude in 1955 and took a position as a graduate assistant at the University of viagra cheap Detroit. While there, he first experienced an integrated social environment and http://www.ekstasis.net/how-much-cialis gained the perspective necessary to effectively critique the follow link levitra brand established segregation of his home town. He earned a master's degree in 1957 and returned to Miles as an assistant professor of science where he taught for six years before entering the University of Oklahoma doctoral program in zoology in 1963. He was, therefore, absent from Birmingham during the most violent clashes between African-American protesters and city authorities in Birmingham. His own account of the period stated flatly: "[I] was never never directly involved, never participated in a single demonstration." Instead, he immersed himself in his studies.
Arrington earned his doctorate at Oklahoma in 1966, completing a dissertation on the "Comparative Morphology of Some Dryopoid Beetles", and, at the urging of Miles president Lucius Pitts, returned to Fairfield as acting dean and director of the Miles College summer school. He was quickly promoted to chair of visit our site pfizer levitra canada the Natural Sciences Department and was eventually named Dean of the College.
 Political career
In 1971, Arrington was invited by a group of young African-Americans to consider running for mayor of Birmingham. He declined, but did agree to http://arboldefuego.com/woman-and-levitra run for City Council. During his campaign, he pledged to make Birmingham "a city of which all her people can be proud." He campaigned with the endorsement of the Progressive Democrats of Jefferson County, his funding came primarily from white supporters of viagra 20mg Miles College. In the general election, he placed third among 29 at-large candidates. He came about 3,000 votes shy of avoiding a run-off in an election where as many as 16,000 votes were invalidated, mostly from African-American precincts.
In the run-off, Arrington faced five opponents for three remaining seats. He won his seat easily, becoming, the first African-American elected to that office in Birmingham. Attorney Arthur Shores was the first to take a seat in the Council, but had been appointed to a vacant seat by George Seibels in 1968.
Arrington was elected chair of the Council's Transportation and Communication Committee. After two years of quiet service, he introduced an ordinance requiring city departments to formulate hiring plans that included affirmative action goals and to contract business to companies that hired minorities. With opposition from the business community, the latter action failed, but the departmental hiring ordinance made it out of council to cialis 10 mg be vetoed by Seibels. Revised proposals that established recruitment programs and prohibited contracting with openly discriminatory firms were later passed. His next major controversy was to push for a formal investigation of the shooting of an African-American suspect while he was under police custody. The hearing was inconclusive, but opened the szarza.pl door to a more serious look at police procedures. Arrington's perseverance in exposing police brutality, a cause Arrington was involved in through the Community Action Committee before entering politics, had a galvanizing effect. It solidified his support in the black community while angering business interests that wished to avoid more negative publicity for the city.
It was arguably an instance of such brutality, however, that opened the door for Arrington to challenge David Vann for the mayor's office. Vann's incapacity to satisfy the demand for swift action following the fatal police shooting of Bonita Carter, an unarmed 20-year-old woman near the scene of http://arboldefuego.com/dose-viagra a convenience store robbery left him vulnerable. Arrington secured support from respected Black leaders in the city for a run for mayor, and also endeavored to secure support from white business leaders should he make it to agentpoint.com.au a runoff. As a candidate, Arrington promised to shut down "whiskey, dope and online viagra cheap'>online viagra cheap gaming houses" and upgrade street lighting as part of a larger effort to crack down on criminal activity. He promised to tighten the city budget and improve fiscal policies. He also pledged to bring in a diverse staff and to hold frequent meetings with community and business leaders to generate productive ideas for civic improvement. He also pledge to encourage small business, establish a tenant-landlord code that would provide incentives to improve rental housing, and to upgrade the mnyouthjazz.com role of community resource officers to reach out to cialis sale buy'>cialis sale buy neighborhoods.
Arrington was by far the biggest vote-getter in the 1979 primary and went on to eke out victory against conservative candidate Frank Parsons in the runoff. In his inaugural address, Arrington told the story of his parents moving to Birmingham for an opportunity, and how that story is really everybody's story in Birmingham. He acknowledged the historic importance of the occasion, but insisted that he entered office humbly and pledged to give his very best to the office of mayor.
|Mayor of Birmingham|
William Bell (interim)
In 2009 Arrington began to re-engage with Birmingham politics. He moved his voting registration from his Hoover home to the home he still kept in Vinesville. In March he and Earl Hilliard formed a "New Jefferson County Citizens Coalition" to support candidates for the 2009 Birmingham City Council election. The failure of his slate to generate voter support and the presence of other strong candidates convinced Arrington not to best price generic levitra throw his hat in the ring for the 2009 Birmingham mayoral election.
- Arrington, Richard (2008) There's Hope for the World: The Memoir of Birmingham, Alabama's First African-American Mayor Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press
- Friedman, Richard (October 19, 1979) "'Organization' brought Arrington commanding lead" The Birmingham News - via Birmingham Public Library Digital Collections
- Frieden, Kitty (November 18, 1979) "Here's a list of promises Arrington hopes to keep" The Birmingham News - via Birmingham Public Library Digital Collections
- Franklin, Jimmie Lewis (1989) Back to Birmingham: Richard Arrington, Jr., and His Times. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817304355
- Kelly, Mark (October 20-November 10, 2005) "Toward a New Birmingham: A Four Part Series on the Life and Times of herbal viagra Richard Arrington, Jr." Birmingham Weekly.
- Bass, Jack. (July 18, 1974) "Oral History Interview with Richard Arrington." Southern Oral History Program, Series A: Southern Politics. Manuscripts Department. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. - accessed September 6, 2007
- Bryant, Joseph D. (October 11, 2008) "Arrington recalls tenure as Birmingham mayor in new memoir." Birmingham News
- "Arrington aiming for mayor?" (March 26, 2009) Birmingham Times