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1870 was one year before the founding of the City of Birmingham and 51 years after Alabama first became a state.




A. H. Parker in 1939 - courtesy BPL Archives







In 1870, John D. Rockefeller incorporated Standard Oil. A political cartoon for the first time symbolized the United States Democratic Party with a donkey. The final Confederate states, Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia, were readmitted to the Union. The 15th Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing African-Americans the right to vote, was passed. The U. S. Department of Justice was created. Pope Pius IX declared papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals. The Franco-Prussian War began. Old Faithful Geyser was observed and named. The U. S. Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) made its first official meteorological forecast.

Notable books published in 1870 included The Vicar of Bullhampton by Anthony Trollope and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea by Jules Verne.

Notable births in 1870 included psychologist Alfred Adler, Soviet Premiere Vladimir Lenin, serial killer Albert Fish, painter Maxfield Parrish, writer Hilaire Belloc, educator Maria Montessori, and writer Ivan Bunin. Notable deaths included winemaker Nathaniel de Rothschild, author Charles Dickens, explorer Fitz Hugh Ludlow, former Confederate general Robert E. Lee, and author Alexandre Dumas.

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